The Robelen date (Phoenix roebelenii) is found in the wild in southern China, India and Laos in moist forest soils and in climates with high levels of humidity. This beautiful exotic plant belongs to the Palm family and is a two or three-meter tree with a thin, straight trunk with a bumpy surface at the bottom and a lush bunch of openwork leaves at the top. Half-meter or meter-long dark green leaves with a silvery tint have an arcuate curved shape, and at a young age their surface is covered with a powdery coating of white. The palm tree blooms with small yellow flowers. The edible black oval fruit has an unpleasant taste and is only about one centimeter long.
Caring for Robelen's date at home
As a houseplant, the Robelena date palm is considered a rather capricious flower and requires special attention and strict adherence to all rules of care and maintenance.
Location and lighting
The growing area should be well lit or close to a light source. The Robelena date can grow in partial shade conditions and in the open sun. During the period of short light days, you can use additional lighting with phytolamps. In order for the crown to have a symmetrical beautiful shape, it is recommended from time to time to turn the container with the plant in different directions towards the light.
The Robelena date is one of the most thermophilic palm species that reacts negatively to cold airs and drafts in the winter months, but does not welcome close proximity to hot central heating radiators.
The most favorable temperature in summer and spring is 20-25 degrees Celsius, in autumn and winter - 15-18 degrees Celsius.
Each next watering is recommended only after the soil surface has dried by about 2-3 cm. The Robelena date loves moisture, so watering should be abundant, but not excessive. Excess water will stagnate in the pot and lead to root rot.
It will not work to grow dates in a room or apartment with dry air, since it prefers only high humidity. You can maintain such a high level with the help of household air humidifiers, as well as regular daily spraying in the morning and evening (or an abundant shower - once a day). For water procedures of this type, it is recommended to use only boiled water with a temperature of about 25 degrees Celsius.
When purchasing a ready-made soil mixture for palm crops, it should be borne in mind that such mixtures do not have sufficient nutritional value and new soil will soon be required. It is better to immediately prepare a high-quality and nutritious substrate. This will require two parts of humus-leaf and sod land, one part of rotted manure, peat land and coarse river sand. Before placing the substrate in a flower pot, do not forget about a reliable expanded clay drainage layer, which will not allow excess water to stagnate.
When transplanting an adult plant of a large size into a new flower container, it is recommended to put a decent weighting agent on the bottom, which will not allow the palm tree to tip over under its own weight.
Top dressing and fertilizers
Complex mineral fertilizers are recommended to be applied in liquid form, the period of top dressing is every 10-15 days from March to November.
You can transplant the Robelen date houseplant in any season, except for the autumn. An autumn transplant will lead to the death of the culture. This process itself is recommended to be carried out only if absolutely necessary, since the palm tree reacts negatively to it and the root system is easily damaged. Florists advise transplanting only because of the age of the room culture, which no longer fits in the old flower container. It is very important to keep the earthen lump intact and safe. This will help to minimize stress to the plant and in the future will reduce the time for the flower to adapt to a new place.
Indoor florists recommend renewing the topsoil in a palm pot every year. For this, a layer of earth from 3 to 10 cm is removed, and a fresh nutrient substrate is poured in its place.
Only the lower dried or old leaves are subject to pruning, which spoil the decorative effect of the Robelen date. At the base of each petiole there are sharp long thorns, this must be taken into account during the procedure.
Reproduction of the Robelen date
Most often, seeds are used to propagate the Robelen date. Since this culture belongs to slow-growing plants, it will be possible to see a large seed-grown date palm only in a few years.
Diseases and pests
To eliminate pests such as spider mites, aphids, scale insects and mealybugs, appropriate targeted or generalized insecticides are needed. It is recommended to use them strictly according to the instructions on the package.
The Robelena date is resistant to infectious diseases. Drying of the tips of the leaves can be one of the possible diseases. The disease is associated with non-compliance with the rules of care and maintenance. In particular, the tips of the leaves begin to dry out in dry indoor air or high ambient temperatures.
Note to the florist!
Indoor plant lovers with little experience may hear about multi-stemmed dates, which in fact do not exist. Such branching of trunks or "multi-stem" can be created artificially during the planting of young crops. By planting several specimens in one flower pot at once, and placing them very close to each other, you can get such an unusual Robelen date with several trunks. Such a beautiful illusion is created by the touching trunks of palm trees.
Phenicia Date palm care at home
The date palm (Phoenix) of the arecaceae family (Aresaceae) is widespread in the tropics of Africa and Asia. This is the oldest cultivated plant, called "the queen of oases". The date palm is synonymous with life: it protects water bodies from drying out, provides food and shelter for people, animals and birds. There are 18 types of date palms, of which three are often used in indoor floriculture (date canary (Ph. Canariensis), Robelen's date (Ph. Roebelinii), date finger). The date is one of the most pest-resistant and hardy palm trees in cultivation.
The sweetest and most nutritious dates you know are the fruits of common date, or palmate (Ph.dactylifera), widely cultivated in the arid subtropical regions of North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, southern Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Finger dates have not been found in the wild.
Translated from Latin, the name of this palm tree means "Phoenix carrying fingers": "fingers" are dates, and "Phoenix" - because after death this palm tree is reborn as young shoots from the roots (just like a mythical bird is reborn from the ashes).
The common date is less decorative than other species: it has a thin slender trunk, bearing at the top a spreading crown of narrow-feathery, arcuate curved at the ends of the leaves on long bluish-green petioles, the leaves of a pinnate leaf are cut in two at the apex. On the trunk of the palm tree there are remnants of leaf stalks. Finger dates in indoor conditions reaches 2-3 meters in height with a crown diameter of up to 2 meters, therefore only young plants are suitable for growing in a room. The date palm is widely used to decorate spacious rooms: winter gardens, offices, halls, lobbies. For the summer, it is advisable to take the palm tree out into the garden, shading it from direct hot sunlight.
The date requires a lot of light in the house for uniform formation of leaves; it must be turned towards the light so that the top of the young leaf is directed into the interior of the room. The palm tree needs a well-ventilated area and uniform watering (plentiful in summer and moderate in winter). From hard irrigation water, dates develop chlorosis, growth retardation and brown spots on the leaves (excessive watering in winter and "cold, wet feet" also cause spotting). It should be noted that when the substrate is dried out, the leaves of this moisture-loving palm tree go down and no longer restore their original position (they have to be tied to a support).
In winter, it is recommended to keep the date finger cool (10-15 degrees) and maintain air humidity. This palm tree loves moist air and frequent spraying (when the radiators are working, you need to spray the leaves every day). From too dry air, the tips of the leaves turn brown on the date, and a spider mite appears on them. Frequent washing protects the palm leaves from drying out and attack by pests.
The date does not tolerate transplanting well, therefore, in April-May, it is necessary to carry out transshipment (a young palm tree - annually, an adult - after 3-4 years, but annually replace the topsoil. leafy earth, humus and sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1: 1) From April to August, the palm tree is fed with small doses of organic and mineral fertilizers 2-3 times a month.
The common date can be grown from the seed after it has been removed from the fruit. The stone is very hard, therefore, before planting, it is placed in water for swelling for several days (the water is regularly changed, you can add a growth stimulant to it). To accelerate the germination of the date, scalding of the seed or careful filing of the shell is also practiced. The date bone is planted vertically in the ground (or in a mixture of peat and sand), sprinkling on top of 1-2 cm.Under favorable conditions (substrate humidity, temperature 25-30 degrees), the bone extracted from the fresh fruit germinates in a month, and from the dried bone fruit sprouts may appear in 2-6 months. In early summer, you can try to germinate a seed prepared for planting in the open field. When the sprout reaches a height of 10 cm, the seedling is transplanted into a pot with a substrate.
The lowermost leaves of the trunk of a date in the form of thorns, feathery leaves appear on a palm tree after about five years.
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Preparing seeds for planting
The best time to germinate dates is late February and early March. When starting to solve the question of how to grow a date palm from a stone, you should start preparing the fruits. For germination, you should choose several ripe fruits in the store that have not been heat-treated. Dates brought from a trip to African countries are even better.
These fruits have a hard skin and therefore germinate very slowly (almost 3 months). To grow a date palm from seeds, increasing their germination, it is recommended to follow the steps:
- remove the seeds from the fruits, peel the pulp and rinse in warm water - this will help reduce the risk of dates rotting in the soil (you can soak in warm water for several days, changing the water daily and removing the pulp residues)
- dry the bones during the day
- scratch the hard skin a little with a sewing needle, and then rub with sandpaper (fine grit) - this will make it easier for moisture to penetrate inside
- using a razor blade or sharp knife, make small cuts on the surface of the shell and then pour over it with boiling water
- to speed up the awakening, the seeds can be immersed for 2-3 hours in hot water (about + 70 ° С)
- soak the seeds in gauze or cotton wool, placing them in a shallow container (plate, etc.), also cover them with wet gauze on top - this is necessary to maintain constant fruit moisture and germination from the inside of the sprout (you can also use hydrogel or wet sawdust).
SIMPLE AND SIMPLE BASKETS
Inflorescences-baskets are an attribute of the Asteraceae / Asteraceae family. They are often mistaken for one flower. Gerbera blooms with luxurious large baskets of a wide variety of colors from late August to November. In winter, she suffers from dry air, but it is impossible for water to fall into the outlet of the leaves. Water gently, increase the air humidity by placing wet towels on the radiators, including indoor fountains, etc. Feed with full mineral fertilizer for flowering species 3-4 times a month starting in March. Eliminate organics.
Simpler inflorescences-baskets - in argyranthemum shrub, which is often called bush chrysanthemum. If you have a standard plant, keep it in shape by pruning longer shoots.
How to grow a date palm from a stone at home and how to care for a beautiful evergreen plant
Dates are sweet exotic fruits. Eating them, many have a question whether it is possible to grow a date palm at home. It should be understood that the stores sell the fruits of the common date. It is slightly different from the Canary and Robelen dates, which are usually sold in flower shops.
You can grow a date from a stone. But the fruits on it are unlikely to ever appear. Such a plant does not bear fruit at home. But if you plant the seed correctly and care for the palm tree, then you can grow a tree in your home, which will become an integral part of your home interior.
How and where does the date tree grow in natural conditions
The date palm (Phoenix) is a genus of crops belonging to the Palm family. It contains about 20 species that grow in the wild in Africa and Eurasia. In natural conditions, a date is a tree or shrub that has thin, elongated, feather-like leaves - its main decorative attraction. It can grow in height up to 15-30 m.
This culture has been known to mankind for over 2000 years. It was grown back in Mesopotamia, where it was one of the most popular and sought after. The fruit of this tree is a well-known oriental delicacy. For his sake, as well as for the production of sugar, palm is cultivated in many countries.
How to choose a fruit for planting
The seeds for planting a palm tree can be taken freshly extracted from the fruit. The dates must be ripe. They should be free of damage, insects, mold. You can plant seeds from any fruit bought in a store - candied or dried, but not heat-treated. The main thing is that the seed does not have time to dry out. That is, after eating the pulp, the bone must be immediately put into action.
Do you know how to grow other exotic seed plants at home? Learn how to root a mango seed and how to grow a tree.
How to grow a tangerine from a seed and how to get fruits is written on this page.
Follow the link https://fikusexpert.com/komnatnye/plodovye/mandarin.html and read useful information about the nuances of planting and caring for a pomegranate tree in a pot.
What conditions are needed for growing at home
In indoor conditions, dates can grow up to 2-3 m, which is much less than in nature. But at the same time, she still needs a lot of space. An adult plant is best placed where there is a minimum of furniture.
For a culture to develop normally and feel comfortable, it needs to provide suitable conditions:
- adequate lighting
- moderate humidity
- loose soil
- periodic bathing in the shower
How to grow from a seed
The process of growing a seed palm is not difficult. As a rule, after placing them in the substrate, they take root well. Still, certain efforts will have to be made.
Preparation of the bone
The seeds that have just been extracted from the fruit are suitable for planting. For seedlings to appear faster, it is recommended to germinate them. First, thoroughly clean and wash the bones. If fruit particles remain on them, then they will begin to rot in the soil. Soak for 1-2 days in clean warm water. Change the water several times during this period.
To get moisture inside the bones faster, it is recommended to wipe their surface with sandpaper, make cuts, scald with boiling water. The most effective way to soak is content in cotton wool or gauze abundantly moistened with water. A hydrogel, a polymer with high moisture absorption, is also suitable. You need to germinate seeds in a warm place. You can place a container with it next to the battery. Make sure that the water level does not drop at all times. After swelling, the bone can be planted in the ground.
Date palm planting substrate should be light, loose. You can buy ready-made mixture for palm trees. If you prepare it yourself, then you need to mix peat, sand, raw sawdust in equal amounts. You can make the soil looser by adding perlite, vermiculite to it. A drainage layer (expanded clay, pebbles) must be placed on the bottom of the container for planting a palm tree.
There is nothing difficult in planting a bone. Insert the seeds vertically into a spacious container filled with soil mixture. It is not necessary to deeply deepen and tamp. On top, you can sprinkle a little soil or lay sphagnum, water, you can cover with glass. Thanks to the greenhouse effect, it is possible to maintain a constant favorable temperature for seed germination.
The soil in which the seeds are planted must be constantly moistened. The first shoots will appear in about 1-3 months. They can be transplanted into separate pots when they reach a length of 10-15 cm. The diameter of the container should be about 10 cm. It is important that the pot is deep, since the date has a long root system.
How to care
Caring for a growing palm tree is simple. The plant is not capricious. Grows well in a warm room with adequate lighting and watering.
Location and lighting
In the wild, dates can easily tolerate direct sunlight. But in indoor conditions, it is better not to subject the plant to such a test. It is advisable to place the pot in the back of the room, closer to the south side. The best option for a palm tree is diffused lighting.
In summer, the plant feels comfortable at room temperature, which will be established for a certain period. It is good if the room is often ventilated. But drafts must be avoided. In winter, keeping in cooler conditions is suitable - + 16-18 ° C. Temperatures below + 12 ° C are considered critical for palm trees.
Watering and humidity
The tree requires regular, moderate watering. That is, there should be enough moisture for the plant, but not much. Remove the liquid from the pan after watering so that it does not stagnate. In summer, you need to water the crop often, in winter, the intervals between watering are increased, allowing the soil to dry out 2-3 cm deep. Take warm water for irrigation, about +20 degrees. A palm tree is adversely affected by hard, calcium-mineralized water. Therefore, before using it, it is better to boil or stand for a day.
Humidity should be within 50%. By spraying the leaves, it can be increased. If it is hot indoors in summer, spray a couple of times a day. Also, to maintain a beautiful appearance and cleanse from dust, the leaves can be wiped with a flannel cloth dipped in succinic acid. It is beneficial for the plant to have a warm shower once a week.
Fertilizers and feeding
The date needs to be fed in the spring-summer period. It is better to use complex fertilizers for large deciduous plants. Add them once a week, alternating with organic dressings. In winter, you should not completely abandon fertilizing. But cut them down to 1 time per month.
Until the plant is 5 years old, it needs to be replanted annually. Older instances - only as needed. Date doesn't really like to be bothered once again. The root system of the palm is very sensitive. Therefore, when transplanting, you need to act very carefully.
The best way to place the plant in a new pot is by transferring it. Each subsequent container should be 3-4 cm wider than the previous one and more in depth. Be sure to pour drainage on the bottom of the pot. Cross the palm tree along with a lump of earth, fill up the missing soil. If an annual transplant is not carried out, then every six months it is necessary to renew the topsoil, which has lost its nutritional value.
You need to be extremely careful here. Only yellow, very drooping leaves can be cut off. But the plant must already be an adult. Cutting young specimens is strictly prohibited. It is not advisable to touch the top of the palm tree. The point of growth is concentrated in it. And if you cut it off, the date will simply die. Leaves can only be removed when they are completely dry.
Is it possible to get the fruits
The date palm grows very slowly. With proper care, homemade specimens can grow up to 2-3 m. But you can hardly wait for the fruits from them. After all, a palm tree begins to bloom and bear fruit when it reaches a height of 15 m. In addition, for fruiting, 2 plants are needed - a male and a female. Therefore, it is worth growing a palm tree for the sake of beautiful foliage and lush crown.
Diseases and pests
In case of violation of agricultural technology, the date palm can be attacked by pests:
First of all, it is necessary to correct the conditions of detention and care. Remove all damaged areas of the plant. Wipe the leaves with soapy water and alcohol. Repeat the procedure after a week. Make sure that the solution does not get on the ground. Better to cover it with plastic wrap.
If the damage is serious and the pest colonies are growing rapidly, it is better to resort to the help of insecticidal preparations:
Weak specimens are more often exposed to diseases. Among the diseases of the date palm, pink rot and spotting are common.
The affected plant needs to be treated with a fungicide twice:
The break between treatments should be 1 week.
A step-by-step algorithm for growing a date palm from a stone can be seen in the following video:
My experience in growing a palm tree from seed is positive, although all my household members were very skeptical at first about my experiment. Now my "date" is already a year and a half, it has 6 stems, but the leaves are not feathery yet, usually such leaves appear on the fifth or sixth year of growth. I soaked the bones as follows: I put 6 seeds in water, where they were for three days (the water needs to be changed every day), then I wrapped each bone in a damp cotton pad, put it on a saucer, covered it with cellophane and put it closer to the battery. When the bones were swollen, I put each one in a glass of earth. Sprouted 3 seeds, when the sprouts reached 10 cm in height, I transplanted them into a tall pot.
In the warm season, dates are fed every 2 weeks with a full complex fertilizer. For this purpose, special food for palm trees or for decorative deciduous crops, which can be purchased at a flower shop, are suitable. The palm tree also gratefully responds to the introduction of potassium nitrate dissolved in irrigation water in a proportion of 10 g / 10 l. In winter, a period of natural dormancy begins for the plant, and its development slows down, the supply of food at this time is completely canceled.
Potential problems with seed growing
If the rules for caring for the plant are not followed, various problems may arise in growing:
- dryness of the tips occurs due to a lack of moisture, it is worth more often to spray the flower
- leaves turn yellow due to dry soil, you need to monitor watering
- darkening of leaves - the result of excess moisture
- the palm tree does not grow. Most likely she is just cold, it is worth checking the air temperature in the room
- yellow or brown spots appear on the leaves - a sign of a lack of potassium
- the presence of bright yellow spots at the edges indicates a lack of magnesium
- light leaves, lack of growth - not enough nitrogen, it is worth feeding the flower
- the appearance of chlorosis of the leaves indicates a lack of manganese. Fertilizers will help.
What can ruin a palm sapling
The date palm is an unpretentious plant, however, it is also prone to various diseases and can be affected by harmful insects. For the palm tree, the danger is:
- spider mite. Appears when the ambient temperature changes frequently. The first symptom is a lot of yellow and brown spots
- shield. The leaves turn yellow, brown plaques appear on them
- thrips. A whitish tint appears on the top of the sheets, a brown one on the bottom.
- worm. When damaged, the plant quickly withers and dries up.
You can deal with insects with the help of special preparations. It is also permissible to use homemade products.
Palm is an excellent ornamental plant. If desired, at home, it is possible to grow a date tree even from a stone, the main thing is to accurately follow all the rules for germination and planting. Only then, after a few years, you can get a beautiful large plant that will delight you with abundant green foliage. The only negative is that you cannot get fruits at home.